Its main body is DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid). This was found by Miescher, and revealed by Griffith, Avery, Hershey and Chase. And it is arranged in order of regular in chromosomes which exist in the nucleus of cells.
Genetic information of DNA transcribes genetic information, makes RNA(messenger RNA), and translates into proteins. The process is called translation. The principle that the information circulates in a fixed direction is called central dogma.
It is made of two chain nucleotides. Two chain nucleotides which combine bases each other and get twisted is called double helix structure. This structure was clarified by research done by Watson and Crick. They were given suggestions from experimental result by Wilkins and Franklin.
The construction of nucleotide of DNA
The nucleotide of DNA is the combination of base, deoxyribose(sugar) and phosphoric acid. There are adenine(A), thymine(T), guanine(G), four kinds of the cytosine(C) to a base, and a base contains one of those. Adenine and thymine, guanine and cytosine complete the hydrogen combination in all creatures, and this unique combination is called the complementarity of a base. Adenine and thymine, guanine and cytosine are included in the proportion of one to one.
RNA is like DNA, because it is made of a chain nucleotide, too. But the number of chains nucleotides which RNA have are not two.
The construction of the nucleotide of RNA
The nucleotide of RNA is the combination of base, ribose(sugar) and phosphoric acid. There are adenine(A), uracil(U), guanine(G), four kinds of the cytosine(C) to a base, and a base contains one of those.
There are a lot of proteins in the human body, also these have an important role in life activity. And there are various kinds of protein.
Kinds of protein
The construction of nucleotide of proteins
Proteins are made of amino acids with a peptide bond and connect like a chain. The kinds of protein varies by the type of total number and sequence of amino acids.
Amino acids are a compound which contains amino and carboxylic acids. There are approximately 20 kinds of amino acids.
Kinds of amino acids
There are approximately 20 kinds of amino acids which make up protein: Glycine, alanine, serine, proline, cysteine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamine acid, arginine, tyrosine, valine, threonine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine. And valine, threonine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine are essential amino acids. It is difficult to make essential amino acids in bodies of humans, so humans need to take in it from food.
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